Amateur fisherman going out to sea in a boat becomes a sailor. And the sea – not a river or pond. The sea does not like jokes and frivolous attitude towards themselves, especially in bad weather, does not forgive. Excitement difficult to manage the boat requires a lot of effort when driving oars, reduce speed, causing the rocking, which is the cause of motion sickness, for which many people lose their efficiency and ingenuity. In addition, the excitement can be and present danger with a strong roll when the water flooded the boat.
Especially dangerous surf when approaching shallow water or in a steep rocky shore. There are two types of anxiety – wind and swell. Wind waves appear due to the fact that the wind stream exert unequal pressure on the crests and troughs of the smallest wave, swinging them more and more, depending on wind intensity. Points are measured at the height of excitement the most repetitive waves. Points correspond to wind velocity.
Typically, wind 1-2 score points superior wind waves of the sea and close coincides with the direction. Despite popular belief, there is no factual basis to confirm that supposedly every tenth wave is larger than the other. However, one or another frequency in wave intensity is always the case. Wave ripples are remnants of wind waves, when, after termination of the sea surface wind is experiencing the excitement of inertia, as the waves go out at once cannot.
Running waves is the apparent pattern of longitudinal movement of water particles, eliminating the surf when there are actual movement of water particles in the direction of the shore, and slide them back into the sea. The waves swell to large and deep seas are kept for a long time, walking long distances in small and limited in size – no more than a few hours.
Ripple can occur not only in the absence of wind. Thus, if the angle between the running direction of the waves and the wind exceeds 30-40 ° or if the wind points are equal to or less than the score of excitement, such as wave ripples are considered, rather than wind waves, for the wind observed at the moment, is no longer the cause of their appearance. Waves swell have a proper, symmetrical shape, its front is expressed clearly.
Swell is usually much longer and provisions wind waves and their behavior on the boat is safe, as the rolling period small boats and they rock in complete harmony with the vibrations swell, not burying or taking on water. Wind waves are asymmetrical – the windward slope is flatter downwind – a steep. In his often topples crumbling ridge – foamy whitecaps, appearing at the three-point agitation (4-5 wind).
Wind waves shorter in the front and steeper than swell waves. It should be borne in mind is that the wind surface and cause movement of water, often does not coincide with the direction of the sea current. Muscled steep and short wind waves can reach dangerous corners, rocking the boat can make out of phase with the wave, and, consequently, draw bead or nose dive into the wave.
Speed boats stroke while driving on a rampage wind origin should be substantially reduced to mitigate impacts in the lining of the nasal tip and strikes the bottom of the water as a result of pitching.
Changing the course of the boat speed also changes the apparent wave period. However, the extent of this change should always be coordinated with a simultaneous improvement in pitching (to reduce the water pouring into the boat), as not every decrease in travel speed reduces pitching; it worked through practice.
The flow of the sea is determined by the dominant, prevailing winds around the pool. Along the banks, for example, is dominated by north-westerly current. Along the coast, it can be much more intense than in the open sea, its speed when the wind reaches 5-6 1-1.3 km / h. At the same time the main stream is located at a distance from the shore only 3-5 km. The intensity and direction of currents along the coast depend on the configuration of the coastline to a large extent, changes in depth, the presence of rivers flowing into the sea and the local winds. Most often it changes over near the mouth of large rivers.
In the bays and gulfs are often formed cycles of reverse flow, so in these areas, at a short distance from the shore, it is difficult to notice any common pattern. As for the individual sections, then the systematic observation can discern individual features of trends in this area and consider their exit to the sea to fish.
The direction of flow along the coast is easy to determine by standing on the anchors of ships and boats (if the wind is not very strong), in the direction of the jet vary in color of the river water, the direction of deviation of fixed nets, and so on. N. In the boat when fishing may be in a deteriorating and complicated weather conditions. The rapid deterioration of the weather at sea is always possible.
Angler should not get involved in such fishing to ignore the approaching squall and strong winds (and, consequently, the excitement of the sea). In deteriorating weather conditions continued catching dangerous, especially in late autumn and winter. It is necessary to quickly remove the fishing gear, raise anchor and return to the shore. This equally applies to seagoing boats. To come back to the shore you need not only as quickly as possible, but the safest course, with the necessary maneuvering, to fully reduce the danger when passing the crest of a steep wind waves.
For motor and rowing boats in rough weather, the wave becomes a factor that needs to subordinate maneuvering, not trying to keep a straight course regardless of the passing waves (including the waves passing near the ships). It is necessary to reckon with. In that the waves hitting the hull, and especially in the cheek board, not only delaying its motion, but the boat is filled. Accumulation of water in the boat can lead to significant loss of stability and increased danger.
When you need to maneuver large waves, performing zigzag maneuver with respect to the main course. Control Technology thus basically consists in the following. If the boat should move towards the waves and wind, that is the most difficult and complicated case, it is necessary after passing trough long wave turn the bow of the boat toward the ridge, which reduces the impact of the housing and the flooding of the boat, and the wave more easily pass under the boat. Passing a comb, you should immediately turn on the necessary course, some going the direction of the main course and again moving away from him at the approach of the next ridge.
Repeated agitation frequent cases where the direction of the wind and the waves run several diverge. In these conditions should be the crest of the wave to pass several leading prow to the wind direction, that is, its target is not strictly ‘perpendicular to the ridge, and steered in the direction from which the wind is blowing to reduce the flooding water boats, launches the wind from the crest of the wave. Passing a comb, unscrew the required course, as mentioned above.
Swell is usually not of a regular character, that is, the waves are not constant in magnitude, and in part on the route. By controlling the boat should tack with respect to the largest waves, while avoiding their attacks in the hull, but do not shy away from every ‘little wave, or you may not be ready to deploy the boat before the big wave. It should also be remembered that rapid maneuvering (change of course) reduces the speed of the boat travel on the basic course.
Traffic on a passing wave, too, is not safe, and extending ridges (with boat speed less than the speed of the wave running) must meet strict aft to avoid the waves hit the aft side (at an angle) and the unfolding of the boat broadside to the crests of the waves. If you need to make the turn, you have to slow down, wait until the wave will be larger, and quickly lie down on a new course, taking place in the future necessary to maneuver in every way to avoid burying the boat into the wave and shock wave in the side (in the nasal cheekbone).
The cargo and people in the boat should be distributed in such a way that the boat had a small trim (with the movement against the wave needs to trim by the stern, when driving on the wave – slight trim by the bow or the position of the boat on an even keel). You should never go to bed in the drift. Boat in this case, becomes unmanageable and turns into a toy waves. Risk of shock waves and flooding of the boat increases sharply. May stall the engine if it is doused wave.
If, however, the engine stalled, you should immediately take up the paddle and keep the boat as recommended above. Are anchored to start the engine, it is impossible – it can be very dangerous.
All the above applies to the movement of the boat at relatively large depths from 5.8 m or more. In shallow water at the approach to the shores of the movement of the boat and its management take place in a difficult environment, to which should be ready. The height and the slope of the waves in the coastal zone depend on the depth of the sea. Particularly steep ridges developed at whitecaps of the sea, as well as the waves swell in shallow water area where the wave reaching area with a depth of about half its length, begins to crumble rapidly, threatening to fill the boat.
Flurry and its consequences.
For motor and rowing boats barrage is less dangerous than sailing, but his approach should always be expected to have time to take the necessary measures. Flurry is a sharp increase in wind. However, its effect is not short term and can last up to half an hour. During this time, can do a lot of trouble and even troubles not only the wind itself, but also the wind waves, which are able to significantly grow and cover the steep shafts lambs a large area of the sea.
Flurry does not arise ‘unexpectedly. At sea, you should always observe the horizon. If there is a clear sky cloud, as a rule, characteristic shape, – a harbinger of a squall. Such a cloud front edge of the club in the form of a horizontal shaft, denser and darker than the rest. Before this cloud is sometimes move the small white clouds. The cloud may appear from that part of the horizon, where the wind blows, but can come in and from a different direction.
In cloudy weather, the appearance flurry can be expected in the amplification of the clouds. In front of the squall of wind usually dies down, sometimes briefly comes complete calm. It should also be borne in mind, especially if the appearance of clouds or clouds have passed unnoticed by the angler. When the wind suddenly died down, there is still time to take a look around the circle and take action, having at its disposal a few minutes.
In the distance there, visible dark band ripples on the surface of the sea, hushed in the period of complete calm as possible only low sloping smooth wave that came from the other, sometimes very remote area of the sea. This area can be a totally different direction than the one on which the approaching squall. From a distance you can also see a band of rain, accompanying barrage, and sometimes hear the noise and the noise of the approaching wind, especially at a time of calm.
When a squall, the wind speed can reach 20 m / sec – this corresponds to the stormy wind, quickly rock the surface of the sea, whose waves rather grow in its steepness, spilling lambs than the length that is becoming the most unpleasant and dangerous “for short and relatively boats that are used by amateur fishermen. A sharp change in the wind direction leads to the fact that one swell direction superimposed growing wind waves a different direction with a smaller, usually long and running speed.
Difficult external agitation system loses legitimacy, the waves are three-dimensional – take the form of separate steep elevations dancing, moving, seemingly completely random. Such excitement, called the crush, is particularly unpleasant, since substantially complicates the control of the boat, intense scour the rate of unexpected throws the bow and stern to the sides, with the ups and dips. These waves are very steep and short, with crumbling lambs, although their height can be relatively small.
The same pattern is observed near the dams, breakwaters and quays with a solid vertical wall, from which extend mirror-reflected waves. They are superimposed on the dashing and create three-dimensional steep waves. Jostling, as a rule, there is also strong on the border of river flow and sea water, with the nature of the unrest also affects the shallows.
Angler must remember that the waves of the sea, going to the river, not extinguished the power of the flow of river water, but on the contrary, become a big slope, moving towards the river (at a sufficient depth of the channel), if they are not scattered by passing the shallow river delta.
These factors should always be borne in mind when returning to the river or at the exit from it into the sea. The end of the squall can be judged by the weakening of ‘wind and change its direction, especially if the wind direction has acquired the former, which was before the squall. Another feature is the rain, as a rule, very strong but short-lived. After it can be expected that cleared up, but it unfortunately does not always refer to a weakening waves. With a strong, continuous squall, and even more so with the rain squall is recommended to return to the sea.