Carp fishing, or carp-phishing, one of the most exciting types of sport fishing. The novice fisherman need to be clear about the whole strategy carp and picture of the behavior of the future sparring partner from the eating habits of fish, methods of searching for its food behavior in different reservoirs at different seasons of the year. It was only after studying all aspects of the life of carp; you can count on success in an exciting fishing for carp.
Strategy catch carp
Part 1. Genetics carp and evolution of different races
Part 2: Learn about your carp (construction gear in accordance with the size and shape of the fish's body, structure and sensory organs, reproduction)
Part 3: Food and nutrition (feeding behavior, natural food components, matching nozzle natural prey, carp feeding apparatus)
Part 4: Water environment
Fundamental differences between the habitat in rivers and lakes
Part 1. Genetics carp and evolution of different races
Anglers have the full information about the gear, tools and tactics of fishing of carp, but the carp in the world there is very little literature on the fish themselves, which we hunt. In fact, the amount of literature on the fish and the environment is enormous, but most of the information is based only on anecdotal evidence.
One example relates to the issue of race in fish: if you buy one of the latest magazines, it is usually a link to the fish, which is called the Italian Dinks carp or carp, while this is only a species of carp. The purpose of this chapter is to give the main characteristics of the carp, as well as to describe how the carp live in their river and lake habitats. Knowledge of the biology of carp is a fundamental basis of fishing in the fish, which is often underestimated.
Despite the fact that you can have an excellent knowledge modern gear, tools and tactics of fishing, but without knowing anything about the carp, you still will not be able to fully master the art of catching it. We also consider the features of the aquatic environment, and how habitats change from one water body to another. We begin with the genetic characteristics of carp and show why the knowledge of these features is important to develop a strategy that helps to achieve success.
As far as we know, an ordinary (flake) Carp is one of the main sources of human food. In accordance with the means at our disposal sources, in 1991, worldwide customers used approximately three million tons of carp. Literature related to the artificial breeding of carp, traces its roots to 500 BC, but many fish farmers believe that carp bred as early as 2500 BC. According to some reports, the carp in those days had a major importance in the diet of people, and the cultivation of this type of start before everyone else.
Common carp originally lived in the Caspian Sea basin, but in the middle Ages it was brought to several countries in Europe and Asia for cultivation in monastery ponds. In fact, it is believed that it was the monks were responsible for the initial settlement of carp in the UK, when wild carp has been launched in many monastery ponds throughout the country.
Soon, the fish were spread all over the world and, as the scale carp breeding and competition in the market, the fishermen began to select the best quality fish. Consumers demanded the fish, which can be easily handled, and which did not require a lot of time to clean up the scales; In addition, cutting and preparing fish fillets were to occupy as little time as possible.
By long-term breeding of common carp fish farmers brought the breed, which is currently known as the mirror carp, naked and straight. Since these fish are easy to handle, they are cute and attractive to the eye. In earlier times, fish farmers had no idea how they got the desired end product, but many years later, scientists reconstructed the sequence of development of new forms, and we can now consider the different races as the genetic consequences of selection.
Genetics studies the hereditary characteristics of living organisms. In relation to the fish may be said that each of them there are millions of different genes, each gene is responsible for a particular trait, for example, color, size, growth characteristics or food preferences. Some traits are passed from generation to generation, and this is the reason that, where carp is reproduced naturally, we have a lot of fish with a similar body structure and with the same scaled cover. The differences between the forms stored in the crossing of the fish with the same features.
Genetic differences between ordinary, naked linear carp have been traced, and it turned out that they are caused by two genes S and N with alternative alleles. The paired alleles are dominant and recessive. As you can see, the genotype of all four species is different, and this difference is responsible for the external structure of different fish.
Strategy carp fishing
The information contained herein is greatly simplified method of taxonomic classification of carp, as the crossing of any two forms usually leads to a specific form. The clean lines of the ordinary and mirror carp can be played, but you cannot get clean linear lines and bare carp. When crossing between a linear carp 1/3 offspring usually becomes common carp, while drugie2 / 3 become linear. Naked carp were crossed with each other, give 1/3 and 2/3 of the mirror naked, while in the crossing linear mirror carp to obtain linear and linear or common carp and mirror. All fish farmers globe use this information when intending to produce carp to the market.
Genetic features of carp often cause the appearance of morphological violations, such as the hill at the back, a bump on the body or skeletal abnormalities. There is no doubt that there are fish in violation of the normal structure associated with injuries from hooks in angling, but many deviations, likely due to the peculiarities of the genotype of the individual. Recent deviations usually occur around the time of the appearance of the eggs and are passed from one generation to another by way of inheritance of genetic information.
Inheritance of body shape is the main subject of discussion on carp genetics, and this feature is the main factor used to identify the different races and breeds for many years. Thus, the terms "race" and "rock" is used to distinguish between fish from different origins, from when manufacturers get offspring with extreme body shape and characteristic color. In most cases within one race may be several species (or lines).
For example, carp races have their origin in historical times, when the first fish farmers from different parts of the world have sought to produce carp to certain qualities (such as the Italian carp). Races spread rapidly, due to which there were different breeds (or lines). Currently, there are a large number of original carp races.
From the perspective of the fisherman, the knowledge of carp races are quite important in the tactical sense, as should be considered when installing snap-ins. Different races differently carp feed on, as each is characterized by the features of the body height, body length, head morphology and the position of the mouth.
In the world there are seven major races of carp, and now we move on to consider them:
Carp Galicia today is probably the most common race in the world. Galicia, the place of origin of the race, is a country in the region of the Carpathian Mountains. Carp Galicia has a classical proportional body shape. Characteristic signs - thick body and tail fin with spots on each of the blades.
These carp characterized by the ability to very high growth rates, and there are very large specimens, known in the UK and in France. Donald Line was distributing this race, since its breeding in the lake Redmayr in the early 1990s.
This fish is very nice, is easily distinguished from other races, and includes hundreds of different breeds. That this race is currently the most popular for sport fishing, and it is in different parts of the world can be represented by a mirror, line, naked, and common carp.
Dinkelsbuehl carp known among fishermen since the early 1990. However, fish farms, this fish were definitely spread much earlier. In addition, in the early 1990s about the race it was very much written in the press. These descriptions were mainly related to the geographical distribution of fish and its use as a fishing entity.
It should be noted that due to a strange combination of circumstances, this race is considered as the fastest growing in comparison with others. In fact it is not so: these fish grow at the same rate as the carp Galicia, where the growth rate is dependent on the characteristics of habitats and the impact of the external environment.
This race is widely known as "Dink"; it took place in Germany and is now reaching high numbers in many lakes in the UK. In particular, this race lives in the lake Frampton Court Lake, Gloucestershire, and Dorchester Lagoon, Oxford shire. Fish have the following characteristics: large ring-shaped scales on the back and facing down the small round mouth, which strongly resembles the funnel of a vacuum cleaner. Representatives of this race exist mainly in the form of mirror carp, although sometimes you can meet ordinary, linear or naked form.
Ropsha carp has its origin from Bulgaria. At the same time as the fish for the sport of fishing, it is most common in France, where he lives in almost all the rivers. Whoever caught in French rivers, he knows that usually come across medium-sized carp weighing 5 to 14 kg, but there are instances in the 18 kg.
Carp size largely depends on the genotype of the fish and on the characteristics of the external environment. Ropshinskoye Common carp are a very long form, and rather unusual, downward-facing mouth. The shape of the mouth similar to those of the Dinka, but is oriented more horizontally. As far as we know, a mirror, a linear or naked form Ropsha carp do not exist.
Of the many races of carp this is our favorite. The appearance of fine Italian carp. Fish of this race easily distinguished by a high backrest and a characteristic rounded shape of the head. Apparently, due to the high body, the representatives of this race have a greater ability to rapid growth.
Among Italian farmers' carp known as 9.25. Imagine the face of fish in the profile is the face of the clock. If you draw a line between the mouth and eye and continue it until the number 9, the opposite end of the line will be in figure 5. It is believed that this characteristic feature have only authentic Italian carp.
In the UK, home too many herds of Italian carp, the most famous - in Savaj and reservoirs Waveney Valley to Norfolk County.
Eyshgrandsky carp comes from Bavaria and is named for Aischgrund River, which flows into the River Main, a tributary of the Rhine. In its original form of a fish of this race is very unattractive and have strangely located mouth. However, over the years of artificial cultivation of fish body shape has changed significantly.
Many of eyshgrandskih carp, which can be seen today, spread in large lakes of Central France, where they reach a weight of 11 to 20 kg for 10 years. This race carp different characteristics: a high back and a flattened belly; the mouth is very blunt and sometimes can be deployed up. Known mostly mirror and naked form.
Carp frame is not particularly well-known race in the sports fish farming, and it is not numerous in European waters. The name of this race frame is derived from the characteristic features of the distribution of scales that limit the right and left sides of the fish. Body Contours more rounded than those of other races, where these carps are bred more as a decorative fish than for consumption.
As far as we know, not a lot of carp frame weigh more than 14 kg, and, as we have established, this race is currently not widespread. Carp frame comes from Bulgaria; the country is particularly well-known due to the large volume of products obtained from the reservoirs. In addition to the features of the shape of the body, the carp have a slit-like shape of the mouth.
This is another wonderful race, whose members achieved a significant weight in large bodies of water rich food. It is believed that the royal carp associated with the name of King Louis XII of France; the latter had a passion for carp and decided to bring his own race. Royal carp is now widely distributed in the central and southern France, where it was caught a lot of fish weighing more than 22.7 kg.
Characteristic features of this race include a sharp curve of the head of the body, an elongated body shape and very small scales. If the scales are available, they are usually quite large and are placed in the body or center or near the tail. The head is often greatly extended, and his mouth stretched in the vertical direction. Obviously, the most well-known habitat of the Royal Carp is a large pond Foret Orient in central France. Many carp that race live in large French rivers.
Strategy carp fishing - Part 2
Learn about your carp
Training gear appropriate way of eating is a particularly important area in carp angling, and this will be discussed below. Suffice it to say that the understanding of the different races and carp species allows the angler to achieve greater success. In short, find out more about the biology of the fish in your pond and try to identify potential weaknesses in their behavior. The choice of the length of the leash is usually crucial, although in some cases of success can be affected by many other factors.
These above information about the different races of carp angler can help in selecting the most effective tactical decisions such as determining the type and length of the snap. Different races differ in the shape of the body, but in most cases in the same body of water you are dealing with fish of one race and breed (as originally in the pond fish usually start from a single source).
For example, such a situation is observed in the lake Orchid Oxfordshire. In addition to the approximately 10 individuals "Dink" carp, which launched in 1992, and another 150 fish were carp in Galicia of the same shape. It helped Simon knowledge of the situation when he developed the tactics of fishing in the pond in 1995. Observations carp powered off, study the composition of catches and determination of the individual races of carp - all this has allowed him to catch almost 30 copies of the 18 parties of the notorious commercial reservoir.
Careful study of the behavior of carp led to the conclusion that the fish is very careful packing during ingestion, they always keep your mouth for a while near the nozzle and do not absorb it. Data on the long-term catches showed that the use of a leash less than 25.5 cm in length was in the past very successful.
Fishermen know that due to the specific shape of the body when ingested fish heads first oriented tail fin up and then aligned parallel to the bottom, while the carp does not go away from the area where the food comes. Accordingly, when Simon angling on Lake Orchid chose leash 12.5 cm long, since such a short length of the fish provided a small amount of freedom to move, after which she must swallow the nozzle.
Given the way of eating carp Galicia 12.5 leashes should be flat on the surface of the bottom of the front of the fish. In addition to applying a weight of 85 grams and compact mounting hair, leash length should increase the chance of swallowing hook, as in the act of natural carp food (Figure 6). As described above, Galicia carp usually takes nozzle lips being in the position of the rear part upwards. Then, due to the release of the air from the swim bladder, the fish almost immediately equalized, and then, trying to tip off to the side.
Using standard equipment with the leash length 30.5 cm or so provided that after the fish hook in order to be, as it completes the process of sampling nozzle. However, this gear is more suitable for cases where there is an instinctive reaction of fish, related to food, and there is no thorough examination of the nozzle.
The Orchid Lake under long leash gives the fish too much time, during which she manages to align the body and begins to move, trying to tip before the hook will enter the mouth deep enough. It is quite possible that the hook will spit out of his mouth. Simon did not want to give the fish to reach this stage, because he wanted to catch a fish before she learns that her going to catch.
Design your gear in accordance with the size and shape of the fish body
As we all know, fish can adapt their feeding behavior to the tactics used by the angler. At the same time, in all cases, it can be seen that the carp has a certain set of instincts during feeding. As far as we know, the instincts are different in different races, reflecting the nature of the behavior of fish.
In particular, the fish of different races vary in response to the danger and the press on the part of fishermen. It should be noted that all the fish have their own means of survival, and sport fishing with carp persecution is extremely important to have information about the features of food instincts in different races.
The number of the many traditional carp races decreases with time, as the fish are crossed, resulting in new species appear. Modern technology allows you to output breeds that grow faster and in a short period reach large sizes. For example, in China there are such races as the Purse carp Big Belly.
Pisces first race possess specific genes responsible for the rapid growth and the achievement of large size, the representatives of the second race have large ovaries and therefore a very high fertility (the number of mature eggs). Both races were bred specifically for the needs of fish farmers, but experience suggests that it would take not such a long time that these fish have become the object of sport fishing.
The structure and senses
It is believed that the body structure is similar to carp salmon (such as trout or salmon). However, the carp - a species well adapted to environmental conditions with a set of senses, allowing him to survive in the wild. Karp - a cold-blooded animal, body temperature different from ambient temperature. The vital organs are supported and protected by skeletal structures. Carp skin consists of two layers: the inner (dermis) and outer (epidermis). Scale, which is a bone plate, laid in the dermis.
Additionally, carp skin covered by a layer of mucus, which not only represents additional mechanical protection and a barrier against pathogens. This layer acts as the main defense mechanism of fish, and anglers should always keep this in mind when they take the fish in your hands or return it to the water.
Always keep hands and litter weighing as much as possible and have a wetter with a bucket of water to make sure that the fish will suffer minimal damage. Moreover, try to ensure that no scale is not flown. Despite the fact that the scales may be reduced, for damaged areas of the skin can lead to adverse effects, such as Saprolegnia infection - water mold.
Damage caused by a hook, may be the cause of serious diseases
Each of the internal organs is of great importance for the survival in the aquatic environment (Figure 7). Supported by the vertebral column, which lies along the entire back of the central nervous system from the brain starts at the top of the head and goes along the dorsal part of the body.
Below is paired oblong kidney - one of the most important organs of the fish. The inner body environment contains many salts and kidneys removed from the body of fish excess water originating from the external environment of osmosis, containing a high concentration of salts.
The action of the kidneys is very important for normal functioning of the fish: the violation of their functions may lead to bloating or even rupture of the body. In this regard, the amount of salt contained in the boiled bait is very essential when using different substances as preservatives. However, in the moment we have no information about any investigations that might recommend harmless or harmful salt levels in the bait.
Carp heart is the foundation of the body directly under the gill cover, covering the gills. The heart makes the blood circulate throughout the body. As blood flows through the gills of the thin blood vessels - the capillaries in which oxygen passes from the water by diffusion. In the center of the body cavity is the intestine, the longest organ in which food is processed by enzymes in a liquid substance, partially absorbed intestinal wall before excretion through the anus.
Due to the fact that the food is varied carp and includes products such as animal and vegetable origin, characterized by its large intestine length. Plant foods such as aquatic plants, requires more time to digest than meat. In this regard, the intestine has to be sufficiently long.
In front of the body of the gut is the swim bladder - a gas-filled bag, the gas content of which can be adjusted to change the buoyancy of the fish. With this body carp can hold at the desired depth. Swim bladder contributes to the implementation of a number of functions, but mainly serves to reduce the energy costs associated with the movement of fish in the water.
The external structure
Carp has a set of fins, which are used for body shots, move forward and back, maintaining the vertical position of the body and turns. Paired fins presented pectoral and pelvic - they serve for balancing the water and to move. Despite the fact that these fins are important in the life of the fish, carp can be successfully survived without them. One example - a carp, known as "No Pelvic" (devoid of the pectoral fins), from Lake Redmayr.
This fish caught countless times over the years, and she lived well despite the complete absence of the pectoral fins. It seems even more surprising that Rob once in France in 1990, caught the fish, which was not the pectoral fins, dorsal fin, anal fin and there was only one abdominal fin. She swam mostly on its side and used the tail fin as a propeller!
In addition to the internal organs of the body and other major components, the carp has senses, in order to obtain information about such things as food, environmental changes and the presence of danger. Most of these bodies are arranged on the outer surface of the body of the fish, but covered with a protective skin layer.
Eyes - the most important sense organs, situated on both sides of the front of the head to provide a wide field of vision. Eyes are well developed and catch any movement, but due to the fact that they are located on the side, binocular vision is weak. For this reason, the carp is best to sneak up from behind, jumping up among coastal vegetation: carp eyes are focused primarily on the objects in front of his head, and all that is behind us, it seems vague. Since the eyes are very sensitive to any movements, move slowly and do not make sudden and quick throws.
Carp eyes operate on the principle of the camera: light rays are focused on a photosensitive layer (retina) with the lens. The weight of the lens in the eye of young carp fish on the individual age. However, the age can be determined much more accurate method, for example, using a ratio of body weight - body length or the number of rings on the ear pebble.
Scientists who have studied the eyes of fish, found that within an angle of 97.6 degrees in fish has a round view, is like a box) objects out of the water. It is not surprising that detects carp angler standing on the shore, with much greater ease than crouching. Scientists believe that this is the image of underwater objects may be reflected from the window surface of the water in the same manner as it occurs in the mirror.
It is believed that this is one of the ways through which the fish can see underwater objects. Thus it is not surprising that the windward side of the lake is often a very good place for carp angling: water surface is always in motion, which affects the ability to carefully examine carp bottom items, such as a hook with a nozzle. There is no doubt that they can influence and other factors, in particular, to the windward side of the lake demolished many different foods. However, in a particular situation a fisherman himself must decide, for whatever reason, this part of the reservoir is the most productive.
Touch and lateral line
Moving water layers under the influence of wind and currents, or as a result of aquatic animal movements can be perceived by the taste carp organs and the lateral line receptors. The receptors of the lateral line are stimulated by external pressure changes in the vicinity of the skin of fish, and they obviously used the carp to detect water pressure changes that occur as a result of changes in the weather.
Despite the fact that the body is viewed sometimes bad, all channels are carps sideline receptors which are sensitive cells perceiving displacement liquid in the channels through protrusions. When moving water sensitive cells send information about the direction of travel to the brain. In addition to recognizing movement of water and underwater objects that are sensitive lateral line organ cells help the carp detect vibrations similar to those transmitted by outboards or sonar. At the same time the lateral line organ works together with the inner ear.
Ears carp are hidden under the side of the skull bones and is very well developed. Recent experiments showed that carp can perceive sound waves over a broad frequency range from 60 Hz to 6000 Hz. Each ear - and two of them on both sides of the head - has a fluid filled sac fish and helps detect vibrations in the water, and is involved in ensuring equilibrium. If there is any disturbance in the water, it is transmitted to the inner ear fluid; also transmitted and sounds that are perfectly distributed in the water.
Paired nasal passages lie directly in front of the eyes and lead to the olfactory capsules are olfactory organs. Well-developed olfactory organ has an input and an output. The water can flow in and out, the smallest stimulating sensory cells localized in the nasal passage. Each cell contains several sensitive hairs, which are able to distinguish between sweet, sour, salty and spicy substance. These substances are detected by emissions of chemicals.
Thus, a large number of odors, which we use for attachments, not as specific as in that we want to assure some manufacturers. Many fragrances are used in the industry consists of a chemical solution which emit peculiar smell (e.g., strawberry flavor) in contact with air. However, it is shown that, when dissolved in water such smells largely lose their individual properties. At the same time the ability to attract fish different smells can be one and the same.
Experiments that we have conducted have shown that certain types of flavorings are more like water repellents, attractants than both. For this reason, we always carefully select the flavor of bait. Good flavor fish should send the information about the food - and, no matter what it means for us. And the only reason that should be added to the bait flavor. In this regard, the chemical composition of the flavor is of fundamental importance, and we must strive to match the natural smell of a signal obtained from the surrounding environment fish. A more detailed discussion of this subject, see Chapter 4.
Mouth, lips and mustache
Working together with the olfactory sensory cells located in the nasal capsules, mouth, lips and mustache carp are sensitive cells that can recognize the taste of specific items prior to ingestion. Such cells are essential for successful supply at night, as well as to determine the path of the fish in the lake in poor visibility conditions. Because carp have no hands for feeling things, he has to use his mouth as a tool to detect prey.
Carp - perfectly organized animal with a large number of efficient sensitive structures. As we can see, each structure has its own characteristics and each function, complementing other, helping the fish to survive in the aquatic environment. More than this, any violation of the function of a single structure entails improving the functioning of adjacent. All the senses work together with the brain, which constantly helps the fish retain information for use in the future.
Karp considered relatively intelligent compared to other fish. Processing of information obtained from the environment occurs in the brain region known as the medulla oblongata. In this section, there are two components that are used to ground (for a long period), and temporary (interpretation information associated with) storage. Scientific studies have shown that the first component is developed most powerfully. Despite many conflicting reports, supposedly, all the carp have a similar mechanism to preserve the memory.
In order to understand how the processing of the information, we will give two examples from the experience of feeding carp. If during the year we will regularly throw bait into the pond in front of angling, the fish at certain times will be safe to come to this place and eat. This is an example of how long works stored memory.
However, if we now carp hook with a nozzle, part of the brain responsible for the interpretation of information, will not be able to inform the fish that comes from a risk - due to the fact that this part of the relatively poorly developed. Thus, the carp may have an idea that there is a hook, but cannot determine in a boilie bait diffuse freely, which one.
Subject motivated behavior carp is a separate area, and many leading scientists are passionate about this issue. Briefly, carp behavior may depend on the fishing action, and it can promote or success, or to counteract it.
The carp angling area there is maintained in the myth for years that it is impossible to catch this fish during the spawning season. In some cases this may be true, but scientific experiments and field observations of fishermen suggest that carp can sometimes eat, and during breeding. Reproduction is stimulated by the water temperature: for the beginning of the ritual takes about 200 degree-days at a temperature of 18-21.
The number of degree-days is obtained by multiplying the average temperature on the number of days; so at constant water temperature of 18 degrees. This number will be 216 for 12 days.
The female carp, ready to reproduce, may be about 100 000 eggs per kilogram of body weight. It is easy to recognize on the swollen belly and protruding anal behind the reddish end of the oviduct. Males, on the other hand, have an elongated and compressed on the sides of the body, and with pressure on the papilla squeezed sperm. Karp until puberty require 3-4 years. From this age, the female lays eggs in the upper layers of the water, not far from snags, submerged branches of trees or bushes of aquatic plants.
The eggs are transparent, about 2 mm in diameter. Immediately after they come into contact with water, the male fertilizes them for 30 seconds. After that, the eggs swell and they form a hard shell. At this time the eggs have significant tack and adhere to everything that occurs on their way. Sperm is distributed among the eggs, but sometimes only a few of them fertilized. For insemination of eggs per female requires at least two males. Very often, watching the spawning carp, you can see how two or three males spawn with one female.
Eggs that are successfully fertilized will be developed before the release of about five days. The larvae appear with yellow yolk sac, due to which the young first time eats. At about the seventh day yolk sac is absorbed, and the larvae begin to swim to the surface of the water for swallowing air bubble and fill in the swim bladder. Then the larvae begin to feed on microscopic plankton, and they are beginning to show signs characteristic of the carp. Like eggs, larvae survival rate is very low. They eat roach, perch and carp and me.
In the presence of suitable conditions carp can reproduce more than once a year. It's quite usual for warm countries, such as France or Spain, but rarely, if at all possible, in colder climates, such as in the UK.
Strategy carp fishing - Part 3
Food and Nutrition
Here we try to understand how the food selection process, and consider how the variability in natural food resources can be used to advantage for the angler.
It is known that carp has a good appetite and can reach considerable size. As with many other fish, favorable conditions and sufficient food are essential for the growth of carp, both in nature and in vitro. When cultured carp stocking density, water quality and favorable habitats are of primary importance for a large and healthy fish.
Genotype carp can also be of great importance to ensure a high rate of growth and produce large individuals. As described above, certain race carp achieve larger sizes than the others. Excellent ability to have rapid growth Galicia carp and carp Royal.
Carp Growth discussed among anglers for many years, and many well-known fishermen trying to understand why some fish reach enormous size, while others are stunted. In this section, we're not going to investigate the features of carp growth, instead, a brief look at some features of fish food.
Carp eats when he wants, and regardless of the tactics of fishing, the angler can only sit and wait for the fish decides that the time has come suitable for eating. Since carp is a cold-blooded creature, it is believed that the temperature and the length of daylight hours are fundamental food incentives for power. However, we all know that the power process may depend on many other factors, including changing weather, the presence of artificial attractants, fish activity or the amount of any food source.
Carp - unusually curious creature, and curiosity may occur with respect to a variety of subjects. Carp must thoroughly investigate a subject that is of interest to him, and should be sure to evaluate the object, causing irritation.
Evaluation can be done in different ways, for example such as the creation of eddies of water and feeling objects fins, but testing of the object to the taste of his capture by mouth is the most common method. Therefore, knowledge of how individual mouth movements are carried out - they vary in different species - and use this information for their own benefit is extremely important if you intend to catch carp.
In the act of taking power essential pharyngeal teeth, while the actual testing is carried out in the mouth of the subject on the palate, with carp always check the item before you eat it. He is no different from many other species of freshwater fish in an effort to maintain energy balance at a certain level. If carp needs a lot of energy, for example at the start of spawning, or during winter, - then it needs more food and possibly only a certain kind of food.
In other words, the intensity of power depends on the energy requirements. From these requirements may also depend on the process of selecting food sources - all these factors can be called greed. If the fish fed with greed, the degree of care is reduced to a level that allows, ultimately, the fish catch. It is accordingly a principal position of the nozzle must choose anglers and a way of its application.
In addition to the factor of greed, carp characterized by a certain consistency in the assessment of the subject of food. Experienced carp almost always is just such a sequence. If we take a closer look at this process, we will be able to determine how the different levels may be associated with a particular situation when angling, and why it is so important for the development of a strategy is the selection of stages in the evaluation of carp food item.
Level 1 - DETECTION
Level 2 - APPROACH
Level 3 - ACCEPTANCE
Level 4 - TESTING
Level 5 - TAKING TIPS
- Level Detection
The first meeting of the fish with the food object occurs when it is detected, so it is important to look attractive head and gave the signal in the desired direction. Its detection in large part due to the level of saturation attractants - the latter can be characterized by smell or taste. Install, if the nozzle is attractive or it smells strongly enough. Ignore whether the fish packing, because he cannot feel the flavor is, or because he did not see her? In some cases, the level of the attractant may be too great, and that's why carp are not suited to the nozzle. If it is optimal, the fish will swim to the nozzle.
Level 2. Approach and departure
Even if the carp close to the nozzle, and it can get away from it - in the event that its location looks suspicious or insufficiently attractive. Again carp action may be associated with the level of saturation attractant, an external view of the nozzle or places particularly where it is located. In intensively fished waters with large fishing process your head should be more attractive than someone else. At this stage, it must also take into account the abundance of food sources. If the food item is as safe and attractive fish from him not refuse.
- The level of acceptance or rejection
If the pond has abundant sources of food, the adoption of the object fish food, are likely to occur at random, and in this situation, place the nozzle arrangement will be vital: its choice should take into account the entire fishing strategy. If food is scarce in the water, the nozzle location will not be significant, and all attention should be paid to the installation a snap. However, it should be noted that the adoption of carp food is always carried out with great care, and rejection of it is likely to mean that the angler something made a mistake.
Level 4: Testing and spitting
If the food is as safe object, is its test, and then determines the value of the nozzle has a taste. The effectiveness of the applied equipment is also very significant. When a fish takes the bait particles, they must have the palatability - the taste should encourage greed. Only the desire to eat another morsel of food will increase the chances that the fish take the hook with a nozzle.
When the nozzle is tested, it will all depend on the efficiency of the gear used. But the taste of the nozzle is also important, because if he is not good enough, the fish immediately spit it. Obviously, the longer the hook with a nozzle linger in the mouth, the greater the chances of success. If the nozzle spat, equipment needs to be replaced or more accurate settings.
Level 5. Taking tips
Taking process with its associated nozzle type and shape being swallowed carp nozzle only when it is sufficiently attractive. The process of selection of food fish is often underestimated, and many of us fall into the trap of using the nozzle without the necessary level of saturation attractants or tackle by means of which succeeded the previous fishing. If one and the same gear used in different reservoirs, angling often fails because each pond develops its own situation.
Of great importance is the use of attractant properties which will complement the taste qualities of the nozzle and bait. Also, to develop the right strategy it is important to link these two factors to the amount of bait and tooling design. Communication of these factors in a particular body of water may change at any time, and only experience can help the angler to detect when it should occur.
Natural food ingredients
Carp is quite selective in the choice of food and bait usually comes in a competitive relationship with the natural food resources of a particular body of water. This item requires a serious approach, if the angler wants to become more aware of and able to choose the right strategy. The natural reservoir productivity depends on many factors, which include the availability of nutrients, the presence of dissolved salts, especially habitat and climate. These are the factors due to which all the lakes and rivers are different from each other, and large carps are found in some water reservoirs, and other - no.
Most rivers and lakes in which lives carp, there are annual cycles in the production of food resources for fish. Thus, the food composition in the reservoir depends on the amount of biomass contained therein and productivity. During each cycle, various kinds of natural feed undergo growth or reduction of the biomass and depending on the temperature, water quality, as well as the energy and nutritional requirements of the food organisms.
The lake is inhabited by microscopic algae - phytoplankton. These plant organisms presented as a unicellular and multicellular algae, such as diatoms. Microalgae are eaten by small animals, mainly crustaceans (such as Daphnia and Bosmina). They can eat the carp. As the phytoplankton and zooplankton are distributed evenly over the pond: it largely depends on the wind direction and the brightness of sunlight. If the lake ripples, the phytoplankton is carried away to the windward side. Happy zooplankton migrates into the lower layers of water.
Phytoplankton and zooplankton after the death sink to the bottom of the lake. Here they are decomposed by bacteria and are part of benthic animals food (such as shellfish, crustaceans and larvae of invertebrates), which mainly carp and eats. The dynamics of its power from three different lakes in the south-east of France throughout the year tracked by analyzing the contents of the intestines. This study was conducted in 1975 ichthyologist Nicholas Giglio. The information can be very useful for the angler.
If it is to take a production with an annual cycle for each food item, you can see that in the three lakes carp throughout each season using the most available food. If at this time the greatest number of clams reach, the carp feeds mainly on them, but if there are a large number of other animals (such as Chironomus, Asellus or Daphnia), the carp diet changes.
Similar results were obtained in a study on carp feeding clams in Lake Skadar, in Yugoslavia. This information is invaluable to anglers, because, despite the features of a particular body of water, gives an idea of the typical objects of carp feeding in their natural habitat during a 12-month period. Data of this kind of help in choosing the nozzle and an attractant; the latter must comply with the most abundant food resources of this body of water at certain times of the year.
We often construct their heads in accordance with our knowledge about what the size of certain feed ingredients throughout the season in typical rivers and lakes of the United Kingdom. You might think that here we can go too far, considering the complex scientific issues. But still, if you want to catch more carp than other fishermen, the effort in the long run, must be justified.
Compliance tips natural prey
The signals emanating from the nozzle, must comply with the signals coming from natural food items; fish will gladly take packing only if the latter mimics a favorite food item. Adhering to this principle, we both had a great success on many waters. One of our favorite lures is based on bloodworms. Initially, we prepare a mixture for making boilies, and take this as far as possible simple ingredients (mainly semolina, which is only a small taste).
Then we do the rollers of a mixture usual way, without adding any artificial attractants. At the stage of cooking add the baits into the water milled crank. After cooking and drying, we immerse the bait before freezing in liquid milled bloodworms. Thus, we try to offer a fish ball, as if composed of bloodworms.
A typical mixture for making boilies includes 227 g semolina, 113 g of soy flour and 113 g of egg protein. The protein mixture substantially increases the cost, but we scatter bait minimum quantity; while nearby natural food resources act as attractants.
When angling with this method, you must be sure that you catch in the immediate vicinity of the natural reserves of bloodworms. This tactic has many advantages, and the fish will often get caught on the hook with a nozzle, simulating the usual food, although not met her before.
Such an approach can be used with shellfish or any other kind of natural food to be brought to the mill and a liquid substance. Although we did not use this practice every time going on a fishing trip, this method proved to be very effective in the "wild" waters where fish are found mainly natural food resources and little familiar with Boyle. It also operates in the waters where the fish is particularly careful with regard to the standard nozzles.
Carp feeding device
Carp is very adapted to feeding on natural food items. Small gill racers (components filter apparatus), located on the gill arches in the rear side of the mouthparts, perform filtering small organisms, such as zooplankton. In the summer you can often watch the carp swimming in the upper layers of the water, and not to pay attention to what is happening on both sides, as it filters through the gill racers daphnia. In such a situation it is almost impossible to catch a fish, so it is entirely focused on the stern, which is powered.
Pharyngeal teeth of carp
When power is more stringent targets, such as clams and crayfish, carp uses pharyngeal teeth. These teeth act as grinders, and are located opposite corresponding projections on the roof of the mouth. Hard shells are ground flaps and the remaining contents can be digested. After using for years pharyngeal teeth wear out, and these are the most common carp caught in Lake office in the South of France.
Where shellfish are the main food of the carp, but if the fish cannot eat shellfish due to the wear of the pharyngeal teeth, they are increasingly becoming dependent on bait, provided by fishermen. A similar situation exists in many other water bodies.
Strategy carp - Part 4
Now we will give a brief overview of the main characteristics of the aquatic environment - examine the fundamental differences between the habitat carp in rivers and lakes.
Carp - is unusually labile creature that can adapt to environments with many factors causing stress, and to an environment conducive to life. The river and the lake are very different in many ways the environment, but equally good carp survives, grows and multiplies in both types of water bodies. Before we examine some of the features of rivers and lakes, and consider how this knowledge can be used by anglers, it is advisable to consider the primary processes, ultimately, determine the survival of carp in ponds.
The existence of any aqueous medium and extensive beings largely depends on the photosynthesis process that takes place in the water daily. Green plants containing chlorophyll under sunlight convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy. All bodies of water in which the fish live, can be considered as an ecosystem.
Each set has the aquatic ecosystem of living and nonliving components such as animals, plants, water, substrate, etc. Water plants and their ability to convert carbon dioxide and water into energy form the basis for different tropic levels: producers, consumers and the decomposition of organic matter.
Aquatic plants in rivers and lakes are presented in different forms, and these forms of algae are the most important. The latter, in turn, are in the form of different shapes of which are the following:
The microscopic green plants that float in the water (phytoplankton);
Green slimy coating that covers the rocks in the rivers;
Large green tufts or bushes in the form of silk, which develop in the lake.
Where the phytoplankton present in the form of slurry in a large quantity, it gives the water a green color. These algae can adhere to the fishing line, making them visible to the angler.
If algae in the form of silk grow along the banks, they create additional problems. Firstly, such thickets difficult to find a place for throwing gear, and secondly, they can represent an obstacle to the survival of fish. Despite this, the algae are important primary producers in ecosystems, and are present in all the lakes and rivers, where carp lives.
If we compare the physical characteristics of rivers and lakes, they differ radically. In this regard, it is important to have an idea of how each system and how its performance can affect the ability to live carp. With regard to the ecosystem of the river, the habitat where live carp, usually does not differ significantly in different areas. River may be divided into separate zones in accordance with flow rate; wherein CARP resides mainly in the depressions (also known as "bream zone"). Here the water flows at a low speed and there is a large concentration of suspended particles in the water - it gives the water a certain color.
Due to the fact that the water flow causes a regular stirring of suspended material, penetration of sunlight on water approximately stable throughout the year. Compared with lakes temperature is also maintained at a relatively constant level. Along the river on the banks of the depressions often have trees and bushes, and the amount of nutrients in the water in such places higher than in other parts of the river. Therefore, in the deep places of aquatic vegetation develops with a weak current, and a variety of food items is highest.
The river bed is generally flatter than in other areas, sand and gravel and small. IL and Tina make up the main components of the bottom sediments, some food items, including shellfish, can be very close to those in typical lakes. The depth here can be constant and often has the same value, but during flood snags, which are available across the river, may accumulate in depressions and then carried away farther downstream.
For fisherman snags this movement is a common problem, and the situation may vary considerably depending on whether, for how long have to flood peak. One of the areas of the river valley in the Loire Valley, which we have visited over the years, constantly changing: at one time he was completely free from snags, and then, a few months later, crouch flooded trees and twigs. In connection with a similar situation, when once again thinking to focus on his favorite river.
The lakes, which live carp, are varied. The depth and size of the lake is very varied: one lake can be up to several meters deep, have an area of approximately 0.8 hectares and contain a lot of nutrients, while another may have a depth of 30 m, the area - 800 hectares and contain few nutrients. Between these lakes may have little similarity and difference - a lot.
Scientists classify lakes according to their productivity: lake poor in nutrients called oligotrophic, rich in nutrients called entropic, and lakes with intermediate characteristics - mesotrophic. The natural productivity of a deep lake is usually significantly less than the shallow, and this feature may be associated with temperature stratification process. Thermal stratification leads to the thermo cline - the zone of sharp changes in temperature, which lies between the warm water of the upper layer (epilimnion) and the cold water of the lower layers (hypolimnion).
Thermo cline zone
Lake Cassien. The same lake, but with different characteristics: there are both oligotrophic and mesotrophic regions.
Carp thrive in both, but the tactics of fishing is different, there is only in the deep lakes - more than 10 m depth; thermo cline is absent in the open lakes, where there are frequent storms. In order to understand how the thermo cline zone is formed, it is necessary to follow the seasonal temperature cycle in the lake, starting with the winter months.
The temperature of water in lakes
The density of water varies with temperature, and the cooled water in the lake in the direction from the surface to the lower layers of water. At a temperature of 4 degrees water has the highest density, and when the temperature reaches the upper layers of the water temperature, the denser layers are lowered to the bottom. In the early winter, the water surface begins to cool, and the temperature of 4 degrees extends from the bottom toward the surface, extending to the increasing water layers.
After the water in the lake will take 4 degrees temperature, followed by cooling the upper body of water leads to a less dense, but the colder layers. After the surface of the water is cooled to 0 degrees and begins to form a layer of ice. Since ice is a bad heat conductor, its presence reduces the rate at which the cooling water of the underlying layers. For this reason, in the temperate zone of the lake rarely freeze from the surface down to the bottom.
If air gets warmer, the water warms up from the surface towards the lower layers of water. In shallow water the lakes usually warms up at all depths. However, the heat does not penetrate in the deep lakes far below 10m: only the upper layers of the water become warmer. These top layers are separated from the lower region of rapid temperature changes - the thermo cline zone. The presence of this zone depends on the season, the presence of such a zone leads to biological differences in the lake. These differences are partly due to the peculiarities of the penetration of sunlight.
The annual cycle of temperature change and water stratification in typical deep-water lake temperate zones below a depth of 10 m of solar energy is not enough for the development of plants, rooted at the bottom. A limited number of such plants lead to the mass development of phytoplankton involved in photosynthesis, the phytoplankton is present mainly in the upper layers of water.
As described above, when the phytoplankton dies, it sinks to the bottom of the lake, which is decomposed by bacteria. Bacteria in the decomposition of organic residues are used a lot of oxygen, and as is away from the bottom surface of the water in the lower layers does not occur absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere. Therefore, in some deep waters in the summer at the bottom there is a very low concentration of oxygen.
In this regard, the bottom of the lake formed thick deposits of mud - dark in appearance and anaerobic. Such deposits, such as found in a reservoir Jennets, as well as lakes and Devon Lac de St Cassien in Southern France. At the dam reservoir Dzhannets layer of mud is very thick and has a black color, and at the bottom is very small carp caught. At Lake office has a lot of deep sites that silted and almost lifeless. In the waters of this type of carp feeds mainly off the coast or near the plateau where adequate sunlight penetration provides an abundance of food.
Distribution of oxygen in water bodies and its impact on the behavior of fish. For aquatic organisms vital functions in all bodies of water require oxygen regardless of their size. Oxygen appears in the reservoirs as a result of absorption from the atmosphere, photosynthesis, weather changes, for admission of water from the liquid piping or by other processes. The water absorbs oxygen up to the saturation level, above which it is no longer capable of absorbing it. Living things use oxygen for respiration, nutrition or movement.
Most oxygen demand is observed in the reservoirs during the summer (biological or biochemical oxygen demand) due to the increased level of activity of living organisms. In winter there is the reverse situation, as low temperatures cause a significant decrease in the metabolism of living beings. Basically colder water contains more oxygen than warm. In this regard, the angler must be carefully calculated as the location and amount of bait used - depending on the situation.
We will try to clarify the provision in the following example. Karp much more active during the period of high temperature water, and therefore, needs more fuel (food) for increasing energy requirements. When the carp intestine fills with food, its oxygen needs become greater than at the beginning of the food on an empty stomach. (The same thing occurs in humans: when we observe to the limit, we breathe with greater frequency than ever before begin the first dish).
In summer, some water bodies the level of the oxygen concentration is low, and the fish is experiencing physical problems. At saturation to the maximum for the power of one session. A good example is the naked carp. This form differs genetically from the mirror, and ordinary linear carp, requires a higher level of oxygen for power. In the presence of low concentrations of oxygen in the water representatives of this form cannot eat a lot of food in a single session as opposed to other forms of animals. So many naked carp have a low growth rate.
In those waters, where in the summer months were not achieved, the fish are most likely to eat regularly during the day, but often enough. Observation and knowledge of your pond will help determine whether there is a similar situation for a certain season of the year. When it is available holding bait on a "little and often" may be more effective than the use of large portions of the bait and wait for a bite for several days.
On the contrary, in the winter season, in terms of a higher level of saturation of water with oxygen, the possibility of achieving the nose rises, which leads to a decrease in the number of repeat captures of fish observed during the cold months in our waters. At this time, during which the fish is saturated to a maximum, may be sufficient for several weeks. Therefore, winter carp fishing is largely unpredictable as it is difficult to decide how many fish can be fed at the moment and how much bait is required. In our opinion, the winter should apply the same principle "little and often" if there is no significant reason to use another method of feeding.
Influence of vegetation decomposition
Degradation of vegetation can have a significant impact on the aquatic environment. Where pools are surrounded by trees, a large mass of fall foliage falls down into the water. After the foliage settles to the bottom, it begins to undergo the natural process of transformation in the bottom sediments.
For the decomposition of leaves need oxygen, and at the same time in the water emit chemicals - all of which can turn a productive week at the lake area where previously stable carp was caught in completely unsuitable for angling space. We have found that this is a common situation for a small lake surrounded by dense forest. In them there are "hot spots" where there are stable catches, except for the autumn, when the points as to die. The following year, the point again revived.
We focused on the fundamental differences between habitats in rivers and lakes: analyze and use this information, as well as knowledge about the biology of carp in the process of drawing up strategies needed to achieve success.